Wednesday, December 28, 2011

‘Cell tower radiation killing birds, bees’ MoEF Panel Wants It Classified As Pollutant

‘Cell tower radiation killing birds, bees’ MoEF Panel Wants It Classified As Pollutant

Himanshu Kaushik TNN

Ahmedabad: An environment and forests’ ministry study has blamed electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from communication towers for the declining numbers of sparrows and bees. The study titled ‘A possible impact of communication tower on wildlife birds and bees’ said the radiation decreases egg production in the bees. A 10-member expert panel headed by Bombay Natural History Society director Dr Asad Rahmani was asked to study the radiation impact after the issue was raised in the Lok Sabha in August last year. “We have suggested that EMR should be recognized as a pollutant given its effect on wildlife and should be audited regularly,” said the Wildlife Institute of India’s Dr B C Choudhary, who was part of the panel The experts noted a Punjab University study that said embryos of 50 eggs of house sparrows were damaged after being exposed to mobile tower radiation for five to 30 minutes.
Sparrows exposed to the radiation suffered from reproductive and coordination problems. They also became aggressive. In the case of honey bees, the group observed that high radiation resulted in an unusual phenomenon known as colony collapse disorder characterized by sudden disappearance of a hive’s inhabitants, leaving only queens, eggs and a few immature workers behind. The vanished bees were never found. Also, the navigational skills of the bees were affected by high-tension lines. The panel also took note of a recent study that showed that the worker bees stopped coming to the hives after 10 days and egg production in queen bees dropped drastically to 100 eggs per day compared to 350 eggs when a mobile phone with frequency of 900 MHz was kept for 10 Minutes in the beehives. It recommended a law to protect urban flora and fauna from EMR and said no new towers should come up within 1km radius of the existing ones. “New towers should be more than 80 feet and less than 199 feet tall,’’ it said and recommended independent monitoring of the EMR levels.
“Forest department should be consulted before installing towers near protected areas and zoos.”
‘Cell tower radiation killing birds, bees’ 25/10/2011

Even as Navi Mumbai's municipal body conducts a drive against illegal cell phone towers, Mumbai continues to reel under the radiation risk

Half of city's mobile towers are unauthorised: NMMC

September 16, 2011

Half of city's mobile towers are unauthorised: NMMC

[DNA : Daily News & Analysis (India)]

(DNA : Daily News & Analysis (India) Via Acquire Media NewsEdge) Nearly half of the
cellphone towers in Navi Mumbai are unauthorised, a report from the Navi Mumbai
Municipal Corporation's town planning department shows.
As per the details made available by the town planning department of Navi Mumbai
Municipal Corporation (NMMC), out of the 749 cellphone towers erected across the city,
350 of them are unauthorised. Vashi has the most illegal towers, while Digha has the least.
The department of telecommunication had in 2006 suggested that operators should not
install towers in residential areas. According to rules, companies are given the option of
installing towers in forest regions. The next best space is open space that is not close to
residential areas. When these two options are not feasible, towers should be installed in
open areas after getting the consent of people living in nearby residential properties.
Cellphone antennas should be erected beyond a periphery of 100 m from schools and
hospitals. Civic body officials said that before allowing a company to erect a tower on
some building, they make sure that the structure (building) has the capacity to accomodate
the tower. However, residents are doubtful whether these norms are being followed and
for them the rising number of unauthorised towers has become a big worry.
A Vashi resident said that the corporation must act swiftly to remove illegal towers. "Norms
are being defied everywhere. They need to see where norms are being defied," the
resident said. These towers are a huge health hazard for people living near them, which is
why the civic body must remove the unauthorised towers."Despite complaints from local
people, the NMMC has said it will take another two to three months to crack down on
unauthorised cell antennas. "We have distributed list of illegal towers to ward officials. The
towers could not be removed as our officials were busy with Ganeshotsav. I don't have
details pertaining to unauthorised towers right now, but the entire work will be completed
within two to three months," deputy municipal commissioner (encroachment), Aziz Sheikh

navimumbai@dnaindia.netCredit:DNA Correspondent(c) 2011

Health threat to mobile users: JNU study

Mobile tower radiations affect chromosomes, DNA: Expert

TRAI’s green telecom efforts not sufficient, say experts

TRAI’s green telecom efforts not sufficient, say experts
March 23, 2011 07:11 PM |
Moneylife Digital Team

The telecom industry is receiving incentives and subsidies as part of
the efforts to reduce the carbon footprint, but it is not doing enough in
the major areas
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) last month published a
consultation paper on "Green Telecommunications" addressing various
aspects like carbon footprints for the telecommunications industry. But,
industry experts are questioning the incentives and subsidies provided to
the sector to push the green agenda.
Professor Girish Kumar, of IIT Bombay, who has been undertaking research
on the harmful effects of electro-magnetic radiation (EMR), asks: "Why does
industry want incentives for green telecom? Is it not our duty as Indians to
not pollute our own country? Should we not care for our people and
The paper says there are 3.1 lakh towers and about 60% of the power
requirement is met through diesel generators and the rest is fulfilled by
power from the grid. But Mr Kumar insists that there are more than 4.5 lakh
towers in the country as of 2011 and that due to shortage of power nearly
59% of the requirement is met through diesel generators and this causes
He also pointed out that telecom operators enjoy unnecessary subsidy on
diesel. He explained that telecom operators get Rs7 per litre subsidy on
diesel. Since their consumption of diesel is 2 billion litres every year, they
get a subsidy of Rs1,400 crore per year.
Mr Kumar suggested that the numbers of diesel generators can be reduced
if power requirement is curbed by optimising telecom systems. The
transmitted power from cell towers must be reduced from 100W to 2W,
which will also help to control radiation.
Mr Kumar said, "The government should adopt immediate policy measure to
reduce the transmitted power to a maximum 1W to 2W, so the energy
requirement will be substantially reduced. Due to low energy requirement,
there will be no need for cooling of the high-power amplifier, and thereby airconditioning
would also not be required in most of the cases and then this
reduced power requirement can be provided through solar or other
renewable energy."
Mr Kumar also raised the issue of the operators' demand for self-regulation
of the industry. Telecom operators present for the discussion on the
consultation paper had said that the government should try to regulate
everything and operators must be allowed to self-certify that they are
meeting all norms.
Mr Kumar said operators should not be allowed self-certification and that the
government should introduce stringent policies and third-party monitoring of
radiation levels and air pollution levels near cell towers. "Heavy penalties
should be slapped in case of any violation as it is directly related to the
health of people, birds, animals and the environment," he said.

Activist Jehangir Gai, said, "There should be an independent and competent
third party regulation." Mr Gai explained, "Assuming that the telecom
companies say that there are no health hazards, then of course there are
some. Even if there is no conclusive study proving the health hazards due to
cell towers, necessary precautions should be taken. It is always better to be
on the safer side."
Moneylife has reported on the health hazards arising out of cells towers and
the negligence on the part of the government to look into the issue. (Read
'Cell towers violate health and safety norms' , and 'DoT group proposes low
radiation levels for cell towers' )
Mr Kumar said it is not enough for service providers to move indoor base
transceiver stations (BTS) to outdoor BTS, switch off a few transmitters, and
to adopt an automatic frequency plan and air cooling instead of airconditioner
to reduce carbon footprint.
He also recommended that telecom service operators emphasise on
research and development to develop solutions, and that the government
should come up with rules for 90% of telecom-related products to be
manufactured in India, which would also help create millions of jobs in the
country. (Also read,'Industry does not want to spend on more cell towers
that will lower radiation'. ) 20/10/2011

Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Cell and the cancerquences

Inform Public about health hazard of mobile tower : HC to Govt.

Stricter radiation emission guidelines soon: Sachin Pilot

“We are sensitive to health-related effects of radiation emissions from mobile towers”
Alarmed by the latest World Health Organisation (WHO) report highlighting that mobile phone users may be at increased risk from brain cancer, the Centre on Saturday said it would come soon out with stricter radiation norms for mobile handsets and towers. It has also decided to devise a better mechanism to monitor radiation from towers and ensure sale of safer handsets.
“We have been sensitive to the issue of possible health-related effects of radiation emissions from mobile towers and phones. An expert group has already recommended that the government should revisit radiation guidelines for mobile towers and adopt guidelines for radiation emission by cell phones. We are working on it and soon come out with fresh guidelines to address possible health hazards from mobile towers and handsets,” Minister of State for Communications and I.T. Sachin Pilot told The Hindu.
“While telecom is a huge success story in India, we have to ensure that any possible health-related effects of radiation emitted by mobile phones and towers are reflected in the guidelines. The final guidelines would take into account the best global benchmarks and scientific evidence on the subject,” he said.
Mr. Pilot said the Department of Telecommunications was already carrying out a special drive to ensure that all mobile towers emit radiation as per prescribed limit. “Till March 31, 2011, over 5.88 lakh out of 6 lakh base stations had been self-certified to meet radiation standards. Each non-complying tower carries a penalty of Rs. 5 lakh. We have carried out necessary amendments in license conditions mandating self-certification radiation levels of towers to ensure compliance with the WHO-endorsed guidelines of International Commission for Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) adopted by India,” the Minister added.
Last year, Mr. Pilot had held consultations on the subject with multiple stakeholders both in the government and the private sector. As a follow-up, the DoT had set up an Inter-Ministerial Group comprising experts from the DoT, the Ministry of Health, the Department of Biotechnology, the Ministry of Environment & Forests and the Indian Council of Medical Research, to evaluate the evidence, revisit radiation guidelines for mobile towers and adopt guidelines for radiation emission by cell phones.
In its report, Inter-Ministerial Group has recommended revision of radiation limits for mobile handsets, besides making declaration of radiation level on each mobile mandatory. For towers, it said radiation norms should be ten times stricter than the existing ones.
The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently said radio-frequency electromagnetic fields generated by mobile handsets are “possibly carcinogenic to humans.”
The report is based on review of evidence coming from epidemiological studies pointing to an increased incidence of glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer.

Telcos scurry to conform to norms

Telcos scurry to conform to norms

NEW DELHI: Indian telecom companies are scurrying to conform to the government's stipulated health norms in light of growing evidence on the cancerous nature of cellphone radiation.

There has been an amendment in the Access Service Licenses — mandating self-certification radiation levels of cellphone towers — to ensure compliance with WHO-endorsed guidelines of International Commission for Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The stricture led 5, 88,645 out of 6, 05,859 base stations to get self-certification till March 31, 2011.

Speaking to TOI, Union minister of state for communications and Information Technology Sachin Pilot said non-compliance to the stipulated radiation limits carries a penalty of Rs five lakh for every mobile tower.

Talking on the cellphone could cause a malignant form of brain cancer, said International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently. It classified radiation emanating from cellphones alongside gasoline engine exhaust, lead and DDT as "possibly carcinogenic to humans".

IARC said, "The WHO/IARC has classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B), based on an increased risk for glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer, associated with wireless phone use."

Pilot said, "We are not going to compromise with radiation limits since it has health-related concerns. The department of telecommunications set up anInter Ministerial Group in August, 2010, to evaluate the evidence, revisit radiation guidelines for mobile towers and adopt guidelines for radiation emission by cell phones. This group has recommended radiation limits more stringent than that of the United Nations."

He added, "We had called for self certification of all mobile towers. Almost 90% of the towers have completed doing so. We have extended their time frame for six more months. However, the radiation limits they are complying to are the old ones. Once new compliance levels kick in, finalized by the Department of Telecom (DoT), they will have to conform to them too."

The Inter Ministerial Group in its report made some salient recommendations about mobile handsets. The group proposed revising the limit of 2 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams tissue to 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over 1 gram tissue. It also called for mandatory declaration of radiation level on each mobile handset. As far as mobile towers are concerned they recommended radiation norms which are ten times as strict as the existing ones- from f/200 watts per square meter to f/2000 watts per square meter.

The group said mobile towers should not be installed near high density residential areas, schools, playgrounds and hospitals.

"The localized specific absorption rate (SAR) value as per the Indian guidelines is 2 watt per kg, averaged over a six minute period and using a 10 gram average mass. With higher SAR — a measure of the amount of radiofrequency energy absorbed by the body while using a phone of mobile handsets — the public could potentially receive much higher radiofrequency exposure. We have recommended that SAR levels to be lowered to 1.6 watt/kg, as prescribed by the Federal Communication Commission of US," said experts.

Girish Kumar, professor in department of electrical engineering at IIT Bombay, whose research on hazards of cellphone use was taken as a reference for the committee decision, said, "There is a 40% increase in the risk of brain cancer among teenagers using cell phones for long periods. The younger the child, the deeper is the penetration of electromagnetic radiation as children's skulls are thinner."

Another Jawaharlal Nehru University study found that the exposure to radiation from mobile towers and cellphones could have an adverse impact on male fertility and pose health hazards by depleting the defence mechanism of cells. The report also suggested that children, adolescents and pregnant women should avoid excessive use of cellphones. People should use hands-free technologies to minimize the contact of the head with cellphone. "People having active medical implants should keep their cellphone at least 30 cm away from the implant," it added.

Thursday, June 2, 2011

Mobile phone users may be at increased risk from brain cancer

Times of India Dt. 01.06.11 (Mumbai Edition)

PARIS: Mobile phone users may be at increased risk from brain cancer and should use texting and free-hands devices to reduce exposure, the World Health Organisation's cancer experts said.

Radio-frequency electromagnetic fields generated by such devices are "possibly carcinogenic to humans," the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced at the end of an eight-day meeting in Lyon, France.

Experts "reached this classification based on review of the human evidence coming from epidemiological studies" pointing to an increased incidence of glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer, said Jonathan Samet, president of the work group.

Two studies in particular, the largest conducted over the last decade, showed a higher risk "in those that had the most intensive use of such phones," he said in a telephone news conference.

Some individuals tracked in the studies had used their phones for an average of 30 minutes per day over a period of 10 years.

"We simply don't know what might happen as people use their phones over longer time periods, possibly over a lifetime," Samet said.

There are about five billion mobile phones registered in the world. The number of phones and the average time spent using them have both climbed steadily in recent years.

The CTIA-The Wireless Association dismissed the report saying the UN agency "conducts numerous reviews and in the past has given the same score to, for example, pickled vegetables and coffee."

This classification "does not mean cell phones cause cancer," the industry association said in a statement, noting that "limited evidence from statistical studies can be found even though bias and other data flaws may be the basis for the results."

IARC cautioned that current scientific evidence showed only a possible link, not a proven one, between wireless devices and cancers.

"There is some evidence of increased risk of glioma" and another form of non-malignant tumour called acoustic neuroma, said Kurt Straif, the scientist in charge of editing the IARC reports on potentially carcinogenic agents.

"But it is not at the moment clearly established that the use of mobile phones does in fact cause cancer in humans," he said.

The IARC does not issue formal recommendations, but experts pointed to a number of ways consumers can reduce risk.

"What probably entails some of the highest exposure is using your mobile for voice calls," Straif said.

"If you use it for texting, or as a hands-free set for voice calls, this is clearly lowering the exposure by at least an order of magnitude," or by tenfold, he said.

A year ago the IARC concluded that there was no link between cell phones and brain cancer, but that earlier report was criticised as based on data that was out of date.

The new review, conducted by a panel of 31 scientists from 14 countries, was reached on the basis of a "full consensus," said Robert Baan, in charge of the written report, yet to be released.

"This is the first scientific evaluation of all the literature published on the topic with regard to increased risk of cancer," he said.

But the panel stressed the need for more research, pointing to incomplete data, evolving technology and changing consumer habits.

"There's an improvement in the technology in terms of lower emissions but at the same time we see increased use, so it is hard to know how the two balance out," Baan noted.

The IARC ranks potentially cancer-causing elements as carcinogenic, probably carcinogenic, possibly carcinogenic or "probably not carcinogenic". It can also determine that a material is "not classifiable".

Cigarettes, sunbeds and asbestos, for example, fall in "Group 1", the top threat category. Cell phones now join glass wool and gasoline exhaust in Group 2B as "possibly carcinogenic".

Industry groups reacted cautiously, pointing to other common consumer items -- including coffee and vegetables pickled in chemicals -- that are included in the same category.

"In France, the health ministry already applies a precautionary approach to cellphones because it considers that no danger has been established, that doubts remain and, thus, that more research is needed," the French Federation of Telecoms said in a statement.

Some consumer advocacy groups said the new classification was overdue.

"As of today, no one can say the risk does not exist, and now everyone -- politicians, telecoms, employers, consumers and parents -- have to take this into account," said Janine Le Calvez, head of PRIARTEM, a consumer advocacy group concerned with cell phone safety. 

Wednesday, June 1, 2011

Write -Up by A M JOSHI; Need for more than 3 m seperation bet. Tower and next Bldg.

From: Ashok Joshi

Date: Sun, May 29, 2011 at 6:42 PM

Subject: Write -Up by A M JOSHI; Need for more than 3 m seperation bet. Tower and next Bldg.


Subject: Write -Up by A M JOSHI; Need for more than 3 m seperation bet. Tower and next Bldg.

[ Possible Arguments to counter W B & Other State Govt.'s 3m separation stipulation / Rules ]

1. In the situation described , let us assume that the Centre of the Antenna is 1.5 m above the 3 m clearance from roof top / terrace top i. e. the Centre is 4.5 m above the terrace /roof top. Horizontal seperation for nearby building [ assuming of similar height ] is 3 m. Hence, from the geometry of right angle triangle, the distance from the centre of antenna to the adjoining building edge will be square root of 4.5 m square plus 3m square i. e. say approx. 5.4 m

2. Radiation from the cell tower

A GSM900 base station antenna transmits in the frequency range of 935 - 960 MHz. This frequency band of 25 MHz is divided into twenty sub-bands of 1.2 MHz, which are allocated to various operators. There may be several carrier frequencies (1 to 5) allotted to one operator with upper limit of 6.2 MHz bandwidth. Each carrier frequency may transmit 10 to 20W of power. So, one operator may transmit 50 to 100W of power [ at any instant ] and there may be 3-4 operators on the same roof top or tower, thereby total transmitted power may be 200 to 400W. In addition, directional antennas are used, which typically may have a gain of around 17 dB (numeric value is 50), so effectively, several KW of power may be transmitted in the main beam direction. Operators are now also assigned frequencies in 1800 MHz band , in addition to 900 MHz band.

2.1 Radiated power density from the cell tower

Power density Pd at a distance R is given by the following formula [ available in text books also ]
Pd = Pt X Gt divided by 4 X 3.14 ( i. e. Pi ) X R square
where, Pt = Transmitter power in Watts
Gt = Gain of transmitting antenna
R = Distance from the antenna in meters

For Pt = 20 W, Gt = 17 dB = 50 ( In numerical terms ) , Pd for various values of R is given in Table 1 below.

Table 1 – Power density at various distances from the transmitting tower

Distance R (m)      Power density                  Power density
                             Pd in W/ square m           Pd in µW/m2

1                           79.6                                 79,600,000

3                           8.84                                 8,840,000

5                           3.18                                 3,180,000

10                         0.796                               796,000

50                         0.318                               31,800

100                       0.008                               7,960

500                       0.000318                         318

The power density values given in Table 1 are for a single carrier and a single operator.

Multiple carriers are being used and multiple operators are present on the same roof top or tower,

then the above values will increase manifold. Assuming 5 carriers are used at a time by an operator --not uncommon in metro cities due to heavy traffic --- the value of Pd at 10 m will be 3.98 W/m2 . For three operators it will be 3 times say 11.98 W / m2 say 12 W / square meters. At any given tower, all the operators main beam is generally expected to be in the same direction to cover a specific road /colony etc.

2.2 At present , India [ Dot ] follow the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines for Radiation,[ from radio wave transmitters on earth's surface ] which allow a radiation rate of 4.5 watts/sq metre at 900 MHz and 9.2 watts/sq metre at 1,800 MHz to be emitted from cell phone towers . (Inter-ministerial Committee --IMC Report, pp 31-32). India follows the latter reference level. The Dot has issued a rule in this regard ,a couple of years back , which hardly any practical value to a common man ] The ICNIRP limit has a serious flaw. It specifies this limit for only 6 minutes continuous exposure. In practice , the Cell Tower radiation is round the clock for 365 days of year ! hence, much lower limit is called for . Unfortunately , the Indian Medical Council of Research [ ICMR ] has not acted in this area effectively. As the tower has many directional antennas , transmitters etc. only actual measurement will allay any doubt of radiation in the vicinity as precise calculations will be difficult and will not give mental satisfaction. Below the tower , there is less problem , but in the nearby building esp. those who are at near tower height or just below, are the worst exposed. This value of of 12 W/m2 at 10 m is very high compared to ICNIRP stipulation indicated below [ ref. IMC Report , page 29 ,para 5.1 ]

India has adopted the following ICNIRP guidelines for basic restrictions and reference levels for limiting Electromagnetic fields exposure in the band upto 2000 MHz is f / 200 W /m2 where f is the frequency in MHz. This is 4.5 W /m2 at 900 MHz band and 9 W /m2 at 1800 MHz band. These guidelines are based on short term exposure of 6 minutes and not H24 / 365 days exposure encountered in Cell Tower radiation exposure.

2.2.1 Following the outcry reg . cell towers radiation health hazard over last few years, the DOT appointed an Inter Ministerial Committee [ IMC ] with rep. of Min. of Health , Environment also. The latter Ministries forced the Dot rep. in the IMC to agree to lower the limit by 10 times but it it is still to be notified by Govt.

The IMC Report [ year 2010 ] also addresses health hazard from cell phone handsets also besides Cell Tower Radiation Hazard ] The IMC 's suggested that the radio frequency exposure limits in India may be lowered to 1/10th of the existing reference level. They have however not given any cogent reasoning how and why they thought of 1/10 . Possibly this was a thumb rule compromise in the IMC .

2.3 The Inter Ministerial Committee of the Govt. of India ( IMC) has also accepted that the existing standards are based on thermal (heating) limits and do not address non-thermal (or low intensity) exposures which are reported to cause Biological effects. Lot of other medical reports are also available pointing to the need for lowering the ICNIRP guidelines. The IMC has also stated that the present ICNIRP / FCC ( USA ) limits are insufficiently protective of public health and require reconsideration and has recommended lowering the above limit by a factor of 10. It has also referred to the Bio-initiative report, [ published in USA in 2007 ] which has recommended 1000 microwatt/m^2=0.001W/m^2 for outdoor exposure and 100 microwatt/m^2 for continuous indoor exposure [ pl see Section 5.4, page 32 of IMC Report ]

2.4 One should also take note of see the limits lower by 100 or more time times adopted by many other countries [ ref. page 30 of IMC Report and Prof. Kumar's doc ] . China has adopted 0.4 W /m2 standard , 0.1 W / m2 by Poland / Hungary ,Paris and 0.001 W/m2 . These countries must have done this after careful consideration of Health hazards from radiation exposure.

2.5 Radiation pattern of the antenna

It is accepted that the , radiation density will be much lower in the direction away from the main beam and the above mentioned scenario may not be encountered for an adjoining building , every time. The simulated radiation pattern of GSM900 antenna of approximately 17 dB gain at 950 MHz of size 2400 mm x 30 mm is shows radiation in two planes – horizontal and vertical. There is one main lobe and several side lobes. For the main lobe, half-power beam-width (HPBW – defined as angular range over which maximum power decreases to half of its value) in the horizontal direction is 65 degrees and HPBW in the vertical direction is 6 degrees. There are several side lobes, whose maximum levels are about -13 to -20 dB below the main level.

One should know actual radiation pattern of the antenna (which unfortunately is not made public) to calculate exact radiation density at a point , but the above formula can give reasonable estimation. One cannot go on doing calculations for each tower and each building . Again estimating actual radiation pattern , integrating patterns for the antenne of 3-4 operators will also be a complex task Actual measurements would be desirable but may not be practicable , every time .

2.5.1 One should be aware that compliance with present standards is left by the DoT to self certification by the service providers. Even this is not being done and a large number of towers are unauthorised – illegal. As the Tower no. in India has crossed 5.88 lakhs , this a real serious problem which needs attention of Policy Makers / Ministers.

The DoT had invited comments from stake holders on the IMC Report by 31st March 2011. Final decision on this proposal of lowering the limits is awaited. But all such reforms will be on paper only because the DoT has no manpower to verify conformity. Public outcry should force the service provider to carry out measurements in the presence of enlightened public rep.s

3. International Telecommunication Union ( ITU ) , Geneva , Recommendation

The ITU - T Rec. K.52 on Guidance on complying with limits for human exposure to electromagnetic fields is also important . In Appendix II --p. 25 , 26 etc. , examples of simple evaluation of EMF exposure at ground level and at an adjacent buildings are given. From the curves , given therein ; it is apparent that maximum exposure hazard is there for horizontal separation upto about 10 -15 meters .

4. Case study of Usha Kiran Building, Mumbai

Through the help of the above typical radiation pattern, Prof. G. Kumar has analyzed the news reported in Mid- day, Mumbai dated Jan. 3, 2010, which stated - “Mumbai's swanky Usha Kiran building says the four cancer cases there could be linked to mobile towers installed on the facing Vijay Apartments . The towers are seperated by more than 10 -15 metes from this building . People living in the 6th, 7th and 8th floor in the opposite building [ Ushakiran ] will get maximum radiation as they are in the main beam direction. People living on the other floors will receive lesser radiation as beam maxima is reduced considerably as can be observed from vertical radiation pattern. In the horizontal direction again, people living in the front side of the antenna will receive much higher radiation compared topeople living in the back side of antenna.

From Table 1, it may be noted that for a single transmitter, power density at R = 50m is equal to 0.0318W/m2 = 31,800 µW/m2. Even for 3 transmitters in the same direction, it comes out to be approximately 0.1 W/m2 = 100,000 µW/m2, which has caused cancer to several people in a duration of 2 to 3 years.

4. 1. Measurement at a cancer’s patient residence [ From Prof. G Kumar's Report ]

Since the radiation effect on the human body is cumulative, a hand held broadband radiation monitor (Frequency range of 800 to 2500 MHz) has been developed to measure the total received power. Radiation measurements were carried out in a lady’s apartment, who had developed cancer within one year of installation of cell tower. The layout of the apartment . The measured readings show that the radiation level is very high and it is between – 4 to -10 dBm. At 900 MHz, -10 dBm received power is equivalent to 7,068 µW/m2, again implying that safe radiation norms must be reduced considerably than adopted by India, which is 4.7W/m2 = 4,700,000 µW/m2.

5. It is hoped that the above , will make it apparent that the if 3m separation specified in W. B . / Maharashtra / Delhi Govt. Notification / Rules is NOT Safe for human exposure to Cell Tower radiation. It is particularly harmful when one is exposed to main beam. The 3m seperation distance specified in W.B Govt. and other State Govt. 's Notification / Rules is not adequate to protect the residents in nearby buildings and in such matters caution would be a better option. It took many years for the Govt. to ban Smoking in public places and to ban the use of Asbestos. Let us not repeat this in case of cell Tower radiation exposure.

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Presentation on Cell tower Radiation Hazard - By Prof Girish Kumar, Electrical Engineering Department I.I.T.

Presentation on Cell tower Radiation Hazard at an
Engineering College in Mumbai. Edited version of the video in 2 parts 
By Prof Girish Kumar, Electrical Engineering Department I.I.T. Bombay, Powai, Mumbai - 400076, INDIA

Friday, March 25, 2011

Leter to TRAI official

From : A M JOSHI, (  retd. )  Wireless Adviser to the Govt. of India , Pune  

To; Shri  Mr. Lav Gupta, Principal Advisor (TD)

Dear Shri Gupta ji,

         The TRAI has brought out an excellent and comprehensive Consultation Paper on Telecom Infrastrucutre Policy Issues. It is hoped that the TRAI Recommendations following the same will help the Govt. to rework its policies and guidelines to provide a fresh trigger for further acceleration of Telecom Sector's growth in India.  

         It is however, regretted that the questions reg. revision of norms / guidelines  adopted by the DOT reg. EMF Radiation Health Hazards to public at large [ from Cell Phone Tower Radiations close to residential buildings and extensive use of cellphones ]  and related issues have not been addressed by the TRAI Paper . This aspect has attracted attention globally , in recent years and in India , in particular giving rise to apprehensions in the minds of general public reg. health hazards resulting in cancer, brain tumours and other ailments .

 Recently DoT released REPORT OF THE INTER-MINISTERIAL COMMITTEE ON EMF RADIATION which has recommended that the RF exposure limits in India [ based on ICNIRP Guidelines ]  may be lowered to 1/10th of the existing level  without explaining or justifying why they recommend 1/10th. Though this is a welcome first step in this direction , this issue needs Regulator's comprehensive consideration and attention . Many other countries have adopted still lower levels . The ICNIRP limits are based on 6 minutes exposure , while from Tower Radiation , the public is bombarded round the clock continuously. This aspect also needs to be examined.

In addition, the implementation mechanism for on site measurements for verification of any such limits has to be simple, quick and easily accessible to satisfy general public. This also needs to evolved in view large no.  of  Towers         [ running into a few lakhs ] in the country .

You have also recommended  in-building solutions.  Some persons  will be continuously exposed to radiation from in-building antennas for several hours per day because their working areas  are in their main
lobe. What will be the effect on their health on short term and long term basis?
This question has not been raised anybody.

Hope that the TRAI will take up these issues also for  serious consideration.  

With Best Wishes,


Mobile tower radiation fear grips Andheri colony

Mobile tower radiation fear grips Andheri colony

Worried over some residents from Andheri-based Sher-e-Punjab Colony being detected with cancer allegedly due to cellular towers, the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) has decided to survey of all towers in the colony to check if they possess the requisite civic licence. The Hindustan Times had, in June 2010, reported on how out of the total 3,489 recorded cell towers in the city, only 1,861 were legal. The rest 1,628 towers did not have the BMC’s sanctions.
Reacting to the HT reports, V Shankarwar, assistant municipal commissioner, K-East ward, said, “The cellphone towers need to seek permissions from our building and factory department. Our officials will survey the area to check if all of them have obtained those permissions.”
If the civic body finds that the towers do not possess the licence, they will face the axe.
Despite the long-existing question over the safety of the cellphone towers, the state is yet to form its rules with regards to the installation of these towers on residential buildings. Even the BMC, on the basis of studies, had claimed that there is no health hazard from cellphone towers. 
Said a senior civic official: “As the matter is contentious, the municipal corporation can’t take any policy decision about the ill-effects of the celltower radiation.”

Mobile tower radiation fear grips Andheri colony

Mobile tower radiation fear grips Andheri colony

When Priya Aggarwal, 41, was detected with breast cancer in early 2007, she tried her best to make sure that it didn’t distract her son, Rohan, who was preparing for his Class 10 exams. But the Andheri resident couldn’t hide the affects of chemotherapy. One day Aggarwal came out of the bathroom, only to find a devastated Rohan staring at her nearly bald head. “He would keep saying ‘Why my mother?’, but nobody had an answer,” said Aggarwal.
She isn’t alone. In the past five years, more than 15 housewives living in Sher-e-Punjab colony in Andheri (East) have suffered from various forms of cancer. Although there is no proof of a direct link, residents are drawing parallels between the appearance of the first cancer case and the installation of the first mobile phone tower in the society nearly seven years ago.
According to Aggarwal, when she was first detected with cancer, her flat was right below a mobile tower. The family then rented another house in the colony. However, that too had a tower, thus forcing the family to move yet again.
The colony, housing more than 100 buildings, has a cluster of at least 8-10 towers spread atop three buildings. All these cancer victims reside within a 500-m radius of those towers.
Dr Parminder Bindra (name changed), a practising homeopath, was detected with ovarian cancer in June last year. “I’ve lived in this colony for more than 20 years. In the past, there had been only one case of cancer. The fact that all these cases happened only after these towers came up, and that too in a radius of 500m cannot be a coincidence,” said Dr Bindra.
Sixty-two-year-old Gurinder Gill (name changed) was detected with breast cancer in October last year. “It has been a traumatic experience for me, shattering me completely,” said Gill, who is now undergoing chemotherapy.
However, the victims know there isn’t enough proof to prove a link between mobile tower radiation and cancer.
IIT professor Girish Kumar, who has been studying electromagnetic field radiations, has pored over the details and even taken radiation readings at Dr Bindra’s house. “My question to the critics is how do you prove that these cases are not because of mobile tower radiation? Why have all the cases happened in the same colony? All these cases fall in the axis of the cell towers’ radiation. Is that also a coincidence?” he asked.
Neha Kumar, who has been studying the biological effects of mobile phone towers, said, “All these women don’t have any family history of cancer. Plus, all of them are within a certain radius of those mobile towers. All this is not a coincidence.”
Dr Ranjeet Bajpai, radiation oncologist at Hinduja Hospital, admits there is a problem. "But, we need a sound mechanism which can establish a more direct cause-effect relationship. However, there  are studies to show that cell tower radiation has led to different types of  brain tumours,” he said.

India has worst radiation norms: report

India has worst radiation norms: report



Mumbai: An Inter Ministerial Report submitted to the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has recommended the cutting down of mobile phone tower radiation by one-tenth of the present level.

The 5.4 lakh mobile phone towers in the country pose a huge threat to the health of the citizens. Experts say that the amount of radiation emitted from these towers in a day, is equivalent to putting one's body in an oven for 19 minutes!

India has the worst cell phone tower radiation norms in the world. The upper limit is so high that within 2 years the health of 1 crore Indians could be affected.

But if the recommendations of the Inter Ministerial Report on cell phone tower radiation submitted to the Department of Telecommunications are accepted, then soon there will be stricter restrictions on towers being installed near high density residential areas and schools.

At present we follow the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNRIP) guidelines for radiation, which allow a radiation rate of 9.2 watt per sq meter to be emitted. The report recommends this level should come down by one-tenth. At the same time the report clearly states that the safe limit for our health is 1000 times less than even the recommended limit.

Experts, like Prof Girish Kumar, Head of Department for Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay who have been studying the harmful effects of radiation for three decades, aren't very optimistic.

“The number of people having health problems is more in the areas where radiation levels are high. We have adopted the worst radiation norm in the entire world,” said Prof Kumar.

The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has flagged off a large scale research project to examine the health impact of mobile tower radiation

“It is the largest study in country we will enroll 4500 people. This is a prospective study. Generally only one aspect is covered in such studies but we are covering all aspects and all disorders be it neurological, cancer, cardiac, ENT-related, reproductive, behavioral in this study,” informed Dr RS Sharma, Deputy DG, ICMR.

Meanwhile, The DoT has not set any time frame for responding to this report.

IBNLive : India has worst radiation norms: report :§ion_id=3 10/02/2011

TRAI worried over diesel generators in cellphone towers

TRAI worried over diesel generators in cellphone towers

New Delhi, February 9, 2011  13:02

The much-celebrated mobile phone boom is taking a heavy toll on the country's environment. As much as 200 crore litres of diesel are burnt and thousands of tonnes of carbon emitted every year to power mobile telephony towers spread all over the country to keep you connected.

Waking up to this environmentally unfriendly side of the phone industry, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has initiated a consultation process to help the sector go green. India has around 3.1 lakh towers, of which 70 percent are located in rural areas where gridconnected electricity is not available. As a result, 60 percent of the towers are powered by diesel generators which produce a total of 5.3 million
litres of carbon dioxide every year.

The total carbon emission is estimated to be around 5 million tonnes due to diesel consumption and 8 million tonnes due to power grid connected towers. Telecom companies spend about Rs 300 crore every month on diesel.

Towers and related equipment such as base stations and backhaul equipment account for the bulk of the power consumption for any telecom operator. The tower sites consume 65 per cent energy, while the core network accounts for 21 per cent.

The use of renewable sources of energy such as solar and biomass, better network planning and sharing of infrastructure by different operators could substantially reduce the carbon footprint of the industry, TRAI has suggested in a consultation paper.

The move from diesel to solar and other alternate sources of energy will result in a reduction of 5 million tonnes of carbon emission as well as a savings of $1.4 billion (Rs 6,350 crore) in operating expenses for telecom tower companies, the paper says.

The regulator has suggested a system of carbon credits for the telecom sector. It says moving to renewable energy sources could generate millions of carbon credits that could offset operational costs on the towers.

However, environment action group Greenpeace feels that the approach suggested by the telecom regulator is flawed.
"In the absence of emission assessments and standards, the promotion of false solutions like carbon credit and offsetting is designed to retard the sector's inclination to undertake measures to mitigate emissions," said Mrinmoy Chattaraj of Greenpeace. Before initiating a carbon credit policy, telecom companies should be made to declare their greenhouse gas emissions.

Its official, cell phone radiation is deadly

Its official, cell phone radiation is deadly

Thursday, February 3, 2011, 9:58 [IST]

New Delhi, Feb 3: There have been numerous rhetoric doing the  rounds on the ill-effects of mobile radiation for a while. The results are out and they are not pleasing at all. It has been found that radiation
from mobile towers pose grave health risks including memory loss, lack of concentration and digestive disturbances. The fact was revealed by an Inter-ministerial committee formed by the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology to study the hazards posed by mobile phones.

If the damages are not lethal for humans, its even worse for birds and insects as well. The committee has
attributed the radiation effects to the disappearance of butterflies, bees, insects and sparrows.
The eight-member committee, comprising representatives from the Health Ministry, Department of Biotechnology and Member Secretary, DoT. The committee found startling violations of radio frequency
levels according to international standards. They have recommended that mobile phones not complying to
standard levels of specific absorption rate (SAR) should be banned. SAR measures the he amount of radio
frequency energy absorbed by the body while using a phone.

"The localized SAR value as per the Indian guidelines standard is 2 watt per kg, averaged over a six
minute period and using a 10 gram average mass. With higher SAR values of mobile handsets the public
could potentially receive much higher radio frequency exposure. We have recommended that SAR levels
to be lowered down to 1.6 watt/kg, as prescribed by the Federal Communication Commission of US," a
committee member said.

The committee also recommended that mobile towers not be installed in highly populated residential
areas, schools, play areas and hospitals. The recommendations submitted by the committee will be used
to chalk out a national policy and better guidelines on electromagnetic frequency (EMF) radiation for
telecom towers.

The report also revealed the disturbing after-effects and said, “People who are chronically exposed to lowlevel wireless antenna emissions and users of mobile handsets have reported feeling several unspecific
symptoms during and after its use, ranging from burning and tingling sensation in the skin of the head,
fatigue, sleep disturbances, dizziness, lack of concentration, ringing in the ears, reaction time, loss of
memory, headache, disturbance in digestive system and heart palpitation.”

A member of the fact finding mission, Dr R S Sharma who is also an ICMR scientist said that the effects of
the radiation are deadlier in Indians when compared to Europeans due to their low body mass index and
low fat content. The tropical climate in India also aggravating the effect. The report pointed out that
children, adolescents and pregnant women could be at the maximum risk and recommends the use of
hands-free technology to lower physical contact with the body and the cell phone. "People having active
medical implants should keep their cellphone at least 30 cm away from the implant," it adds.

The children seem to be the worst hit with the extreme use of cell phones and according to Girish Kumar,
a professor in the Dept of Electrical Engineering at IIT Bombay claims, “"There is a 400% increase in the
risk of brain cancer among teenagers using cell phones for long periods. The younger the child, the deeper
is the penetration of electromagnetic radiation as children`s skulls are thinner.” Girish's findings were taken
into account by the government appointed committee.

Another study by the Jawaharlal Nehru University also pointed out the effects of radiation on male fertility
and how it effects the defence mechanism of cells.

The committee plans to submit the report so that the government can take some notable action on the
hidden hazards of radiation. "We have recommended amendment in the Indian Telegraph Act 1885 and
rules so that only mobile handsets satisfying radiation standards should be permitted in the country," R S
Sharma said.

This page was printed from: 10/02/2011

Telecom tower firms under pressure to scale up tenancy

Telecom tower firms under pressure to scale up tenancy

Several firms in India are targeting demand for towers to mount telecom radios on, as phone networks expand at a rapid pace to meet demand in areas never served by phone firms

New Delhi: The winding down of a small telecom towers firm from Gurgaon and last week’s buyout of an Indian tower start-up by American Tower Corp., a US company owning 23,700 towers worldwide, at a price close to what its costs to set up the physical assets are being seen by analysts as a sign that companies in the tower businesses are under pressure to scale up tenancy or face consolidation.

Several companies—some backed by big mobile phone services firms, and others, start-ups—in India are targeting demand for towers to mount telecom radios on, as phone networks expand at a rapid pace to meet demand in areas never served by phone firms. India, the world’s secondranked market by mobile phone users, is also the fastest growing by customer additions every month.

The raison d’etre for the business is simple: sharing of towers among phone firms reduces capital spending and helps in faster roll-out of networks. “The need for tower sharing will increase immensely in the current liquidity-credit crunch and economic downturn as companies slow down their capex plans, reduce leverage and conserve cash,” Siddharth Shah of Mumbai based brokerage Kotak Securities Ltd wrote in a report published last month.

Tower sharing among phone firms reduces capital spending and helps in faster roll-out of networks urgaon-based Independent Mobile Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd, a telecom tower company, is exiting the business after competition intensified in a crowded market, Mint reported on Wednesday. The company, which manages around 300 towers in 10 telecom circles, or licensed areas, plans to sell the infrastructure and cease operations, according to four persons belonging to the telecom industry, who did not want to be identified.

Just last week, American Tower announced its buyout of Xcel Telecom Pvt. Ltd that owned and ran 1,700 towers.

Analysts estimate India will need between 100,000 and 150,000 new towers added in the next two to three years, taking the total to more than 300,000 towers as the number of phone customers crosses the 500-million mark, up from the current almost 380 million. Despite that healthy outlook for towers demand, the key to be able to be firmly on the path to break even for tower firms, they say, is to increase tenancy on each tower to 1.5 to 2, up from the current 1.1. Tenancy is the ratio between the number of telecom operators using each tower.

“A tower sharing firm needs to have a 1.7 to 2 tenancy ratio to break even,” said Sudhir Gupta, vice-president, marketing, for India’s largest tower company Indus Towers, a three-way venture between phone firms Bharti Airtel Ltd, Vodafone Essar Ltd and Idea Cellular Ltd. Aiming for a return on equity of 15% may require a tenancy of greater than two, G.V. Giri, an analyst at the institutional equities division of India
Infoline Ltd wrote in a report published in October last year.

Indus Towers, reckoned to be the biggest in the business, has close to 96,000 towers at present. Even with the business it gets from the likes of Bharti Airtel, Vodafone Essar and Idea Cellular, Gupta says the firm is at least a year away from a 1.7 tenancy; by March 2010, it will have between 115,000 and 120,000 towers.

Typically, the cost of setting up a tower is about $66,000 or Rs33 lakh, Sunil Kanoria, vice-chairman and managing director of Quippo Infrastructure Equipment Ltd said in January. The cost can vary depending on factors such as location, height and extent of power back-up. This does not include the cost of the electronics (called base transceiver station) or recurring costs such as rent for the premises it is mounted on.

So, for Quippo, which recently announced a merger with a tower unit of phone firm Tata Teleservices Ltd, its target of 50,000 towers by 2012 will translate into a capital spending of Rs16,500 crore.

Capital expenditure at other firms such as GTL Infrastructure Ltd, which is eyeing 25,000 towers by 2011, or Essar Telecom Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd will also be relatively high.

Delays in a new crop of telecom aspirants starting services means it will take longer than planned to recover these investments. Companies such as Swan Telecom Pvt. Ltd, Unitech Wireless Ltd and Loop Telecom Pvt. Ltd, have received telecom licences and spectrum allocations, but are yet to finalize tower sharing pacts with the tower firms. Still, when they do, their decisions are expected to be a boost to the towers business. The new phone firms need to rollout their services in at least 10% of the districts in a circle, or telecom service area they have a licence to, within the first year of getting a licence, and 50% of the districts within
three years, according to the roll out obligations given in the licence agreement.

Another quarter where fresh demand could come from is when at least two of India’s phone firms running CDMA (code division multiple access)-based networks shift to a rival standard (GSM), an industry executive said. “With them launching pan-India GSM services, the demand for towers goes up as GSM services need more towers as compared to CDMA,” this executive with a leading telecom firm, who did not want to identified, said.

Mandatory solar for Indian mobile phone towers

Mandatory solar for Indian mobile phone towers

22. OCTOBER 2010

The Indian government will ensure that it is mandatory for mobile

phone towers in India to be powered by solar energy.

The MNRE is pushing forth with more changes towards sustainable energy usage Image: Ministry of

New and Renewable Energy

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has decided on this move in the hope of cutting down pollution from diesel consumption in the country. Even though this move will mean that the construction costs for the mobile phone service providers like Vodafone, Bharti and Reliance communications will see a steep increase of approximately 50 percent, the MNRE stands by its decision. Diesel is the fuel of choice at the moment in powering the 350,000 mobile phone towers across India at the moment.

“We are working on a new scheme that will support adoption of greener practices by telecos while rolling out their services for customers,” secretary with the ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE), Deepak Gupta, told India's Economic Times.

Gupta also said that a test project is being carried out on 600 towers and be in operation by the second half of 2011. The feedback of this test project will see the further developments and funding of the scheme. Each tower is expected to cost about Indian Rupees 40 Lakhs or around 65,000 Euros. The additional solar panel installation will cost about INR16 Lakhs or approximately €25,870.

Capital support may be minimum for this scheme but the government may offer soft loans to companies under the refinancing schemes of the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency. Under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, the aim is to increase solar power capacity in India.



Anahita Mukherji

Mumbai: Cell phone towers perched atop school buildings are causing intense bouts of anxiety amongst parents and teachers alike after a central government committee concluded that radiation from these towers can cause serious ailments.

In recent years, a whole array of schools, ranging from those run by the state to those sporting the “international” tag, have allowed mobile towers to be erected on their rooftops.

Teachers at GM International School, Goregaon, complain there are up to 15 mobile towers on the school premises. The school authorities, though, differ. “We don’t have mobile towers on campus, but mobile poles that connect one line with the next,” said Gunita Malhotra, a trustee of the school. “The government has tested the radiation emitted by the poles and found it within permissible limits.”

Girish Kumar, a professor in the electrical engineering department of IIT-Bombay, calls these “permissible limits” pathetic. “Our studies have shown that one thousandth of the radiation prescribed by the government causes severe health hazards,” said Kumar.

In another instance, a mobile tower has existed at the Central Railway Employees High School in Parel for at least three years, without anyone knowing how it got there. Even the principal, Madhuri Hatekar, was unaware of its existence until alerted by the youth wing of the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena.

“This is wrong. We are worried about our children. Such towers should not be put up in a school,” said a parent.

The tower also caught CR officials by surprise. “A digital communications firm called Tikona approached Railtel, a PSU owned by the railways, for permission to set up mobile towers. In 2008, the railways gave the firm consent to set up a tower at Apprentice Mechanical Building in Parel. No consent was given to set up the tower on the school,” said Vidyadhar Malegaonkar, chief spokesperson, CR. Sources say the Apprentice Mechanical Hostel and the school are housed in the same building.

Radiation info on cell packs?


Radiation info on cell packs?

. 5 L Fine On Firms Flouting Tower Emission Norms

Durgesh Nandan Jha TNN 

New Delhi: The department of telecommunications is planning to issue directions asking mobile companies to prominently display on the pack the level of radio frequency energy absorbed by the handset, minister of state for telecommunications and information technology Sachin Pilot said on Thursday. He added that the government is going to launch a nationwide crackdown on companies that have been flouting guidelines on electromagnetic emissions from mobile towers and failing to self-certify them. The firms will be fined Rs 5 lakh for each non-compliant base station. 
    “In my view, people buying phones have the right to know the Specific Ab
sorption Rate (SAR) level of a particular product… given the health hazards that some phones with high SAR levels can cause. We have asked all stakeholders—mobile manufacturers, citizen groups and NGOs—to give their response by February 25 and based on that we will issue directions for display of SAR level,” said Pilot. More than 90% of people do not know about SAR level. It is usually a part of the user manual, which in wrapped inside the packets or put on the website of the company. 
    Pilot said over one lakh Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs) mounted on mobile towers have failed to self-certify as per standards prescribed by the International Commission for non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). “They failed to meet two deadlines for self-certification. Now, we are going to penalize them,” he said. 
    In a recent report, an inter-ministerial committeehas found that high SAR levels of a handset cause health hazards like loss of memory, lack of concentration, disturbance in the digestive system and sleep. 
    The committee suggested that the radiation limits need to be lowered to 1/10th of the existing level. The recommendations have been put on the DoT website for response from stakeholders, citizen groups and NGOs and a decision in this regard will be taken soon, Pilot said. The minister added that the department is strengthening Telecom Engineering and Resource Monitoring Cells (TERM) to ensure effective monitoring of mobile towers.